News is the report of events in the world. It is broadcast by television, radio and print media. The term “news” was introduced in ancient times, and the first newspaper was printed in Germany in the early 1600s. In the 21st century, the Internet has ushered in a new wave of news distribution. However, the boundaries of journalism have become increasingly blurred. Some of the changes in the ways we receive information are due to technological advancements and changes in the social landscape.
In the 20th century, television and radio became an important means of transmitting news. However, the printed press continues to be an important source of information. As a result, scholarly studies have explored how news values are formulated. Researchers have used empirical and qualitative methods to explore how news values have evolved.
Several scholars have studied economic, cultural, organisational and sociological factors in the news value system. Ultimately, these studies have concluded that the values of news are influenced by external determinants. For example, some journalists are in a better position than others to influence the choice of news. Similarly, certain governments have imposed constraints against biased or unfavourable reporting.
There are two basic types of news, which are classified as hard and soft. Hard news stories are generally short and matter-of-fact, while soft news is longer and focuses on a person, story, trend, or entertainment. Both types may have negative or positive overtones.
Aside from being reported by the mass media, news is also distributed through non-profit and for-profit news organizations. Many of these news organizations are owned by governments or other institutions. These commercial news organisations often have more power over their audience than a private newsletter. This is because the newspapers and television stations often have the ability to shut down or change their content, without losing their credibility.
Despite the changing nature of the media, there are still many aspects of news making that are based on a matrix of variables. Brighton and Foy argue that the matrix remains useful. They propose a model of the news making process, which includes a “bargaining model,” a “newsworthiness model,” and a “political model.”
Some scholars have studied how news is selected. This selection process determines whether a particular story becomes news. When journalists are selecting news, they are aiming to ensure that the content is neutral and objective. Yet, this can be easier said than done.
In addition, some of the criteria for news selection are more relevant than the actual event itself. For example, an incident that makes the headlines can have a larger impact on readers than an incident that is not a major news event. Likewise, a scandal can create a great story, even if it has no immediate impact on the public. Still, the importance of this selection process has not been fully explored.
The role of newspapers and other mainstream media is to inform and empower citizens. But, as news has become more emotive, some journalists and news organizations have become more powerful than others.